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The primary purpose of the study Felitti et al. (1998) was to determine the connection between exposure to abuse as well as household dysfunction at childhood stage and different risk factors causing death in adults.
Felitti et al. (1998) reviewed prior literature in sociology and psychology that examine the consequences of childhood abuse. The articles were relevant to the study since they explore the relevance of childhood abuse and adult medical problems. The study also reviewed various medical researchers that concentrate on primary care, mental health, adolescent health as well as symptoms demonstrated by adult patients (Felitti et al., 1998). However, the review of literature is incorporated in the introduction part and the discussion section. The review could be adequate, clear and precise if the study developed a literature review section before the methodology part.
The theoretical framework of the study was presented in the methodology section. The framework used employed the Kaiser Permanente’s San Diego Health Appraisal Clinic model. However, it was appropriate for the study since the authors ensured that it was approved by Institutional Review Boards (Felitti et al., 1998). I would suggest for a well-structured theoretical framework that incorporates a flowchart of activities.
The study used surveys as a sampling method that involved the construction of study questionnaires with Conflict Tactics Scale.
The key advantage of the questionnaire is that the questions can be designed to address the research topic specifically. Conflict Tactics Scale plays a significant role in rating responses to determine their significance level. Questionnaires also allow for grouping of the questions based on the target group (Felitti et al., 1998).
The variable is based on the category of childhood exposure that includes physical, psychological, sexual, substance abuse, mental illness, criminal behaviour and parental violence.
The variables are measured qualitatively by use of percentage.
The variables based on childhood exposure are defined according to their percentage prevalence as well as the relationships between exposure categories by use of the significance level.
The researchers conducted a medical evaluation for all individuals eligible to take part in the study, which included physical assessment, medical history and laboratory tests (Felitti et al., 1998). The participants were asked to provide answers to the questions in every exposure category.
The study revealed that over half of the participants reported between one to four categories of childhood exposure. Individuals exposed to four or more categories had high chances of poor self-rated health, sexually transmitted disease, obesity, physical inactivity and smoking (Felitti et al., 1998). The adverse childhood exposure showed a close relationship with adult diseases.
From the above results, Felitti et al. (1998) concluded that there is a close connection between the childhood exposure to abuse, household dysfunction and other risk factors and the primary causes of sickness and death in adults.
The drawbacks of the study include a one-way focus on the exposure and their impacts. It could be appropriate if the study examined the methods to remedy the impacts of childhood exposure to the health of adults. The study did not apply statistical approaches to determine the probability of the event occurred after the exposure.
Authors recommend for future research on educating medical and public health practitioners based on emotional, social and medical issues over the lifespan. This will provide physicians with relevant skills to respond to the patients who recognise the impact of the childhood exposures (Felitti et al., 1998).Tags: article, research, summary